First Draft

Section 1. Your research, including games, and literature (7 - 15 pages)

Section 2. Your methodology for testing your game. I’d suggest the approach we’ve covered in class, the Iterative Approach in Games, Design and Play but of course others are welcome. A mixed methods approach is also fine or an Action Approach (Norman) was also covered. (1 - 2 pages)

Section 3. Your work and your iterations of it. Why did you make the choices you made? How does your user testing support or change this? (10 - 15 pages)

Section 4. Next steps and future directions for the project. (1 - 5 pages pages)

First draft (10,000 - 12,000 words) 11k words / 25pgs.. around 440 words per page.

Abstract: Brief description of SDT. Establish Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Establish SDT Needs. How can games be viewed from an SDT lens. Specifically, how the three SDT needs be used to analyse game experiences. The use of rewards in games on player motivation, specifically how it relates to extrinsic motivation.

Section 1. RESEARCH 7-15 Pages ~4k words

Research on motivation. why do we do anything? (in a general context)

Research Introduction As the video game market is becoming increasingly populated, developers are looking for new ways to retain players and gain new ones. Player Motivation in games is a popular topic in this regard. (yes haha) Research into this topic includes Bartle (2004) looks at player motivation in MMOs, concluding that there are 4 different player types of Socialiser, Achiever, Killer and Explorer. Yee (2005) designed a player motivation taxonomy that outlines ~~~. These scholars have researched motivation explicitly in regards to video games. However attempts to link traditional psychology to Game design have been scarce. In contrast there has been lots of research into motivation from outside of games, looking at behaviour conditioning in animals to humans (). This paper aims to bridge research on human motivation to game design.

Establish SDT**

The three psychological needs Self Determination Theory is an approach to looking at human motivation that focuses on development and behaviour in humans.(Ryan & Deci 2000) It has been applied to many varying fields ranging from sport to music. SDT posits that there are three main psychological needs. (Ryan & Deci) These needs are Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness.

Types of motivation SDT separates motivation into two different types. Intrinsic motivation, self motivated behaviour that is of ones own volition, and Extrinsic motivation, behaviour that is influenced by an individual’s environment. Of the two types of motivation, intrinsic motivation is the more desired form of motivation.

Establish Existing Research that aims to link SDT to games Studies have been committed researching the relationship between SDT and games, most specifically (Ryan, Rigby & Przybylski 2006) the paper The Motivational Pull of Video Games by Richard Ryan himself. The study examined individuals playing games in a laboratory environment and surveyed the individuals SDT needs, enjoyment, and future gameplay motivation. The results concluded that fulfilment of SDT theorized needs predicted enjoyment, changes in well-being and future gameplay motivation (Ryan, Rigby & Przybylski 2006). The paper further states that perceptions of Competence and Autonomy are linked to the intuitive nature of controls and sense of immersion.

  • Self Determination Theory
    • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
      • SDT posits that motivation can be separated into different forms. Intrinsically motivated and extrinsically motivated behaviours (citation needed)

    • The three psychological Needs
      • Autonomy
      • Competence
      • Relatedness
  • Behaviourism (an opposite take)
    • Operant conditioning, Skinner Boxes.
      • Reinforcement Schedules.
  • The idea that we play for emotion. (Tynan - Designing Games)
    • The change of human values

How can we encourage people to play

  • How can we satisfy the three needs of SDT through game design?
    • Autonomy (Agency and volition)
      • Providing Agency
        • The illusion of player choice
    • Competence (Skill, Flow and Challenge)
      • Designing mechanics that are inherently fun and that encourage learning and growth.
        • What are inherent mechanics?
      • Single Player games
      • Multiplayer games
      • Cooperative games
      • The issue of luck
      • The affects of artificial and inherent Skill
      • Challenge and flow.
        • How to design for learning and development.
    • Relatedness (Social Design, Immersion)
      • The change of human values (Designing Games)
      • Immersion
        • The player and the avatar.
        • Interface
          • The affects of Intuitive controls

Conclusion My hypothesis. In order to achieve

Section 2 methodology for testing my game. (1-2 pgs) ~1k words

Iterative Approach, playtesting and incorporating user feedback in iterative development cycles.

what questions did I use to look for the SDT needs ?

Section 3 My work and my iterations of it. (10-15 pgs) ~4k words

I assume this is asking what did I contribute to the project? Explain the reasoning behind decisions. How did user testing support them?

Section 4 Future directions for the project. (1-5 pgs) ~1k words

continued development